Ray Kroc – The brain behind the franchising of McDonald’s and making it the biggest name in the Fast-Food Industry
Ray Kroc was born on October 5, 1902, in Chicago, Illinois. He attended public schools in Oak Park, Illinois. He left school to serve as an ambulance driver during the First World War. After the war, Kroc tried his hand on being a paper-cup salesman. He became a jazz pianist and started playing in various orchestras. He worked in the Chicago radio station for a while as a music director, after which he became a milkshake machine salesman. The milkshake machine was his own invention. In 1941, he chose to serve as a distributor of the milkshake machine.
During the real estate boom in Florida, he began selling real estate. However, he had to retire to his pianist occupation, after the real estate market in Florida went down in 1926. By now, he was a father of one child. During the economic crisis, he had to send his family back to Chicago. He, eventually, started working as a paper-cup salesman again.
In 1954, Ray Kroc came to know about the drive-in restaurant run by Richard and Maurice McDonald, located in San Bernardino, California. He learned that they used his multi-mixer machines and were making good money out of selling hamburgers, milkshakes and french fries. He was struck with an idea of starting a franchise in collaboration with the McDonald brothers. He approached the McDonald brothers with a proposal that he would use their name and standards and start a chain of McDonald’s restaurants. According to the deal, would be getting one-half of the gross income of their business. The McDonald brothers agreed to his proposal and Kroc opened the first chain of McDonald’s restaurants on April 15, 1955 in Des Plaines, Illinois.
Six years later, Kroc would buy out the McDonald brothers for $2.7 million, but more importantly he would gain complete control over the business. “The McDonald bothers were simply not on my wavelength at all” said Kroc. “ I was obsessed with the idea of making McDonald’s the biggest and the best. They were content with what they had; they didn’t want to be bothered with more risks and more demands.”
In 1965, McDonald’s went public; 300000 shares were initially sold at $22.50 each, later jumping to $49. Kroc had made $3 million on the sale. But, Kroc wanted more and embarked on an ambitious campaign for foreign markets. First, the U.K., then Europe, kroc began to erect Golden Arches in almost every continent.
In 1974, Kroc stepped down as CEO of the company he single-handedly grew into a global empire, but remained on as Senior Chairman of Mcdonald’s Corporation. He died of heart failure in 1984 at the age of 81.
In one of the greatest success stories of our time, Kroc took a small but successful California based hamburger restaurant and expanded it into what is today a worldwide chain with almost 500000 employees and $20 billion in revenue.
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12 juni 2013
FP Passport: Assad is loving the protests in Turkey
Foreign Policy (blog)
As Turkish security forces used tear gas and water cannons in an attempt to clear Istanbul's Taksim Square of protesters last night, Syria's state media reacted with a tone approaching glee. The official Syrian Arab News Agency (SANA) argued that ...
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Syrian extremist rebels raid Shiite village - CBS 5 - KPHO
(AP Photo/SANA, File). FILE - This Wednesday, June 5, 2013 file photo released by the Syrian official news agency SANA, shows a damaged church in the town of Qusair, near the Lebanese border, in Homs province, Syria. By SARAH EL DEEB Associated Press ...
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Syrian helicopter fires on Lebanese border town
It's the first such attack from Syria on an urban center inside Lebanon. There was no immediate word on casualties. Scores of rebels and civilians who fled from the Syrian western town of Qusair last week in the last days of a government military ...
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Photo: February 17, 2011 – President Barack Obama joins a toast with Apple CEO Steve Jobs, and other technology executives at a dinner in Woodside, California.
The “Day of Rage” in Libya and by Libyans in exile was planned for February 17, 2011…
On 3.14.2012, America’s Defense Department’s best-known geek announced that she was leaving the Pentagon for a job at Google.
The American federal government has been secretly collecting information on foreigners overseas for nearly six years from the nation’s largest Internet companies like Google, Facebook and, most recently, Apple, in search of ‘national security threats’, the director of national intelligence confirmed Thursday night.
The Syrian Arab News Agency (SANA) is the national official news agency in Syria:
http://sana.sy/index_eng.html (if the link isn't blocked by the western war seeking authorities)
A cozy village atmosphere, which can be very annoying
Une atmosphère de village accueillant, ce qui peut être très ennuyeux
Een gezellige dorpssfeer, die erg vervelend kan zijn
In 1820, caffeine was first isolated from coffee by the German chemist Friedlieb Ferdinand Runge, apparently at the behest of Johan Wolfgang von Goethe. The following year, the French chemist Pierre Joseph Pelletier, coined the word ‘cafeine’ after the French derivation for the word coffee; café. However, it was not until the end of the 19th century that its complete chemical structure was discovered by Hermann Ermil Fischer, who was the first person to achieve its total synthesis. Fishcher was later awarded the Nobel Prize in 1902 for his work in this field of organic chemistry.
Le Corbusier was born Charles-Edouard Jeanneret in 1887 in Switzerland. After a early career traveling, teaching and working on a small scale, he changed his name in 1920 and gave up designing in order to dedicate himself to more theoretical pursuits. In 1923 these were summed up in Vers Une Architecture, a manifesto for modernist design: architecture was a machine that was severely out of sync with society: ‘the primordial instinct of every human being is to assure himself of a shelter. The various classes of workers in society today, no longer have dwellings adapted to their needs; neither the artizan nor the intellectual. It is a question of building which is at the root of social unrest of today: architecture or revolution.’ Thus a revolution in design was the only thing that could halt the coming catastrophe. And what did this new revolution look like?
Already, Le Corbusier is imagining a new type of city: a regulated city of sky scrapers, in which the plan is at the centre of the work because ‘without a plan you have lack of order and wilfulness’. The idea thus became more important than the place, theory superseded experience. The rightness of the plan itself would ensure the evolution of a peaceful, happy society, whose voices were not encouraged. This revolution demanded men ‘without remorse’ who could see the project to its end without swaying to public opinion: ‘the design of cities are too important to be left to the citizens.’
In 1925 he hoped to test his ideas with projections for the Plan Voisin that was the centre piece exhibition in the Pavillion L’Esprit Nouveau at the World Fair. His dreams demanded the leveling of most of the historic neighbourhoods of Paris, north of the Seine – from the Marais to the Place Vendome, and replaced by long avenues, organised into a rigid grip system, filled with parkland and gardens. At the centre of each island was a vast tower blocks - the new machines for living. Thankfully the Plan Voisin was nothing more than an attempt to shock and never intended to see the light of day. That did not mean that Le Corbusier was not absolutely serious and his ideas further evolved into the concept of the Ville Radieuse, published in 1933.
Le Corbusier’s City of Tomorrow was the solution to the problem of traffic as the architect saw poetry in speed. How can the massed chaos of the city be reordered to allow for maximum velocity? While Patrick Geddes saw the relationship between the past, landscape and present as integral to any city plan, Le Corbusier wanted to smash history, ‘burn our bridges and break with the past.’ Where Ebeneezer Howard desired the marriage of city and nature, Le Corbusier saw the city as the enemy of uncontrolled nature, a machine to defend man against the vagaries of the unpredictable and inhuman, including human nature itself.
Le Corbusier was quick to grasp the impact and promotional character of photography. In the course of his life, he used images in diverse ways: he saw travel as an opportunity to collect a wealth of extremely rich material which he used in his work as an architect, town planner, theoretician and sculptor. He then drew on a vast repertoire of images to illustrate his writings and exhibitions.
Ultimately, he forged his image on the basis of the work of several famous photographers: Fred Boissonnas, Lucien Hervé, René Burri, to name only the most well-known.
Photography therefore formed the logical basis for his architectural work as well as enabling him to construct his own image.
The various sections of the exhibition cover the diverse relationships between Le Corbusier and photography:
1. Le Corbusier, the man
2. Le Corbusier, the photographer
3. Image and promotion of Le Corbusier's works in photographs
4. Photography and publication
5. Photography and exhibition
6. Le Corbusier's architecture in contemporary photography
r. de l'Ermitage 55 / Kluisstr. 55, 1050 Ixelles / Elsene
Tel : 02-642.24.50 - Fax : 02-642.24.55
26/4/2013 - 6/10/2013
Berlin- Brüssel un travail en chiffres et en lettres
Bettina Küsel et Philippe Leblanc
Philippe Leblanc: Toiles perforées rétro-éclairées suivant un rythme dicté par la suite de Fibonacci, cubes et cylindres articulés ou pivotant, lampes-sculptures, suspensions monumentales dont les dimensions évoquent les unités du temps, série de totems suspendus ou disposés en cercles, toutes ces œuvres réfléchies et calculées sont cependant souvent modifiées spontanément en cours de réalisation et jusqu’à la dernière étape, parfois délicate, du montage, pour ensuite laisser la place aux rêves qui les ont initiées.
Les œuvres sont percés d’identité : après la chute du mur et la reconnaissance et l’arrivée des allemands (d’origine ethnique) vivant en ex-URSS, Berlin a vu changer profondément sa population.
Berlin est redevenue une ville internationale où les Berlinois côté Est se sont crée une propre identité dont le résultat tangible sont les cartes postales avec des slogan en allemand mais en utilisant les lettres cyrilliques.
« J’ai crée mes propres messages et puisque le monde s’est internationalisé, les messages sont en français et en anglais (à lire avec l’accent russe). »
Vertigo art, r. Haute 271, 1000 Bruxelles
Tél. : 0495-28.29.04
Fax : 054-32.77.03
sa. et di. de 11 à 18h
7 / 05 / 2013 - 30 / 06 / 2013
Berlijn- Brussel van cijfers en letters werk
Bettina Küsel en Philippe Leblanc
Philippe Leblanc (cijfers) is gefascineerd door de combinatie van cijfers en kleuren en wendt zijn vaardigheid als architect en kunstenaar: de volmaakte versmelting, mathematische reeksen opnieuw geïnterpreteerd.
Bettina Küsel (letters) Is Oost-Berlijnse en in haar niet conventionele doeken zoekt ze naar haar identiteit, versterkt door de grote metamorfose van Berlijn, stad van haar jeugd.
Philippe Leblanc: Doeken, van achteren belicht, ritmisch geperforeerd in reeksen en gerangschikt volgens het principe van Fibonacci. Kubussen en cilinders, bewegend en draaiend, monumentaal opgehangen lampsculpturen, waarbij de afmetingen verwijzen naar de tijd. Een serie totems opgehangen of in cirkels opgesteld.
Al deze werken, hoezeer ook bedacht en berekend, worden tijdens het realisatieproces spontaan aangepast, vaak op het allerlaatste ogenblik om ruimte te geven aan de initiële droom, de basis van ieder werk.
Bettina Küsel: Haar werken zijn doordesemd van identiteit: na het instorten van de muur en de erkenning en de komst van etnische Duitsers uit de ex-USSR, verandert de Berlijnse bevolking fundamenteel. Berlijn is opnieuw een internationale stad waar de Oost-Berlijners een nieuwe identiteit hebben aangenomen o.a. tastbaar op prentbriefkaarten met slogans in het Duits, evenwel mits gebruikmaking van het cyrillisch schrift. Vanwege de internationalisering van de kunst, zijn de teksten in het Frans en het Engels (te lezen met een Russisch accent).
Wanneer: van 07/05/13 tot 30/06/13 za, zo van 11:00 tot 18:00 (ma, di, woe, do, vrij gesloten)
Waar: Vertigo art - Hoogstr. 271, 1000 Brussel
Wegbeschrijving, Routeplanner MIVB
zaterdag en zondag van 11 tot 18h
7 / 05 / 2013 - 30 / 06 / 2013
Arms exports to Israel from EU worth €200m
European Union member states authorised the export of €200 million in arms exports to Israel in 2007, the latest figures from Brussels disclose, with France far and away the Jewish state's biggest European weapons supplier.
According to the EU's 2008 report on arms export licences, published in December for the 2007 calendar year and consolidating the accounts that member states must annually submit, 18 member states authorised a total of 1,018 such licences to Israel worth €199,409,348.
France, Germany and Romania were the top three exporters. France issued export licences worth €126 million, Germany authorised €28 million and Romania €17 million, the EUobserver can reveal.
In response to calls from opposition politicians that the UK government halt its arms exports to Israel and push all other EU member states to do the same, a British foreign office spokesperson said: "We do not approve any defence related exports if we judge that there is a risk that they will be used for external aggression or internal repression.
"We routinely refuse export licences where we believe that there is a risk of this. Any application relating to Israel is considered on this basis," the spokesperson continued.
EU arms code of conduct
The EU has maintained an arms export code of conduct since 1998, but it is overseen at the member state level, not in Brussels, so if Mr Brown were to push for such a move, he would have to convince the 26 other member states.
In 2007, €12 million in small arms and ammunition were exported to Israel by Bulgaria, Germany, Poland, Romania and the UK.
Another €23.5 million in "light weapons," meaning those that require two to three people to operate them, such as bombs, torpedoes and explosive devices, were supplied by the Czech Republic, Germany, Romania and Slovenia.
Belgium, France and Romania also sent Israel €18.5 million worth of aircraft and related material. Paris is responsible for €10 million of this sum.
In a fourth, very broad category of armaments in the EU's consolidated report, "electronic equipment" - referring to electronics specifically modified for military use, navigation and guidance equipment, and satellite jamming systems, some €94 million was exported by France (€89 million) and Germany (€5 million).
The rest of the €200 million consists of weapons that fall into other minor categories beyond small arms, light weapons, aircraft and electronics.
Italy, traditionally a major arms exporter, only supplied Israel with €0.5 million in weapons in 2007. Spain, also a leading trader in the sector also sold Tel Aviv just €4.5 million worth of armaments.
Sweden, another major European weapons producer, along with eight other EU member states, delivered nothing to the Jewish state.
Across the EU, only 28 export licences were refused as a result of human rights, internal security or regional stability reasons.
Kaye Stearman, of the UK-based Campaign Against Arms Trade, told this website: "The UN and impartial observers have regularly documented how Israeli military actions have violated international humanitarian law.
"Although the UK's own Consolidated EU and National Arms Export Licensing Criteria is supposed to assess the impact of arms sales on regional peace, security and stability, and the country's human rights record, it seems that this is ignored in the case of Israel."
"Britain must immediately stop selling arms, including arms components, to Israel and also stop buying arms from Israeli companies - arms that have been 'tested' in the laboratories of the occupied territories."
Photo: Nato-buildings Brussels
Explosion in Brussels, 7 Injured
June 1st, 2013
An explosion of unknown origin in a dwelling quarter has left at least seven people injured in Brussels, Belgian TV reports. The cause of the explosion is being investigated.
Explosion à Bruxelles: le bâtiment a été détruit
1 juin 2013
Une explosion a eu lieu dans un bâtiment du Boulevard Anspach à Bruxelles. « On a entendu un grand bruit », témoigne un voisin, interrogé par RTL. « Les flammes sont arrivées ensuite, petit à petit, c’était vraiment très impressionnant. On a vu les voisins du dessus sortir sur leur corniche pour échapper aux flammes avant que la police ne leur demande de rentrer. Mais ils sont ensuite ressortis parce que, selon eux, il y avait le feu dans l’escalier. On voyait la panique sur leur visage, c’était vraiment très impressionnant. »
Explosie op Anspachlaan veroorzaakt door sigaret
1 juni, 2013
De explosie en de brand in een gebouw op de Brusselse Anspachlaan hebben zaterdag negen gewonden gemaakt, aldus de politie. De brandweer sprak eerder over zeven gewonden. Drie van hen zijn er erg aan toe. Dat heeft brandweerwoordvoerder Pierre Meys gemeld. De bovenste verdiepingen van het gebouw werden namiddag afgebroken. Volgens vtm is de explosie veroorzaakt door de combinatie van een gaslek met een sigaret.
"Justice in Wartime and Revolutions : Europe, 1795-1950"
War and revolutions generate transformations of judicial institutions and practices, and bring about shifts in the occupation of positions within different sections of the judicial system, which then often undergoes expansion. These transformations can either have lasting effects or only be temporary, in which case the former judicial system is restored. Such restoration can be complete, but often the phase of war and occupation will remain to have an impact, because certain changes are consolidated, because it is no longer possible to simply restore the previous situation, or because new elements are embedded into the former system.
On Nov. 1, 1941, the Army established the Fourth U.S. Army Intelligence School at the Presidio of San Francisco to teach the Japanese language to Japanese-American (Nisei) soldiers to use in a possible conflict with Japan. War broke out in December 1941, and in 1942 the school was moved to Minnesota and renamed the Military Intelligence Service Language School (MISLS). Almost all of the 6,000 wartime graduates of the MISLS were trained in Japanese.
In 1946 the MISLS was moved to the Presidio of Monterey. It added Russian, Chinese, Korean, Arabic and six other languages to its curriculum, and was renamed the Army Language School (ALS) in 1947. The size of the faculty and student classes and number of languages taught increased throughout the Cold War years.
Different service language schools were combined in 1963, when the ALS was re-designated the Defense Language Institute, West Coast Branch (DLIWC), with its headquarters in Washington, D.C. The Navy school became the Defense Language Institute East Coast Branch. The Air Force programs were phased out by 1970. The U.S. Air Force English Language School for foreign military personnel at Lackland Air Force Base, Texas, became the Defense Language Institute English Language Center.
During the Vietnam conflict the need for Vietnamese language training was so great that a special branch, the Defense Language Institute Southwest Branch, was established at Biggs Air Force Base near El Paso, Texas. This branch was phased out in 1973, but not before DLI had exposed more than 20,000 servicemembers to the Vietnamese language.
When the U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command was established in 1973, DLI was placed under its control. In 1974, the DLI headquarters and the East Coast Branch merged with the West Coast Branch at the Presidio of Monterey. In 1976, the English Language Center was separated from the rest of DLI, and the school at Monterey became the Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center (DLIFLC).
'Defense Language Institute' - Foreign Language Center
MAYDA CRUZ, Spanish instructor, Associate Professor
'Three powerful forces, the Vatican, Pan American Airlines, and the U.S. State Department joined together in 1961 to save 14,000 children from being kidnapped by a Caribbean dictator. One of these children was MAYDA CRUZ, now a Spanish instructor at DLIFLC.
Soon after Fidel Castro seized control of Cuba, rumors spread that the new government was aligned with the communist government in Moscow, and children, ages five to 16, would be taken from their homes and indoctrinated in Moscow.
Operation Pedro Pan was a Catholic Charities program that was established to save these children from Marxist-indoctrination.
After diplomatic relations with Cuba broke in 1961, the U.S. State Department waived visa requirements for children coming from Cuba. This enabled the children to travel by commercial flights to Miami.
On the Cuban side of the water,Mr. James Baker, the headmaster of an American school in Havana, organized a Harriet Tubman-like underground railroad made up of Cubans and expatriates who helped the children escape from Cuba. Cruz, then eleven years old,was one of the 14,000 children who had to leave her home country. “I got on the flight and kids of every age were all crying. I was crying and everyone was nervous. This was a traumatic experience,” Cruz said.
Many families in Cuba believed that this would be a temporary solution and that they would also gain visas to join their children. But at this young age, Mayda only understood that her parents were sending her away. “Once you enter into customs, it is all glass. I could see my parents on the other side, and I was hysterical. I remember that I was crying so hard,” Cruz recounted.
“I always had the mind-frame, ‘I am going home, I am not worried about my parents coming here because I am going home.’ But as the years went by I started to embrace the new country and my thoughts began to adapt and change,” said Cruz.
On the other side of the 90-mile gap between Havana and Miami was the Catholic Charities representative which organized the children’s evacuation, provided a large school/foster care infrastructure, and offered the opportunity for the children to live free lives.
“There was an older lady at the airport in her 50s or 60s,” Cruz recalled. “She had a sign that said ‘Catholic Charities’ and she took us to our new home - little houses designed for 24 girls and a foster couple who took care of us,” Cruz said.
With only one phone call allowed to parents per week, not only was physical communication limited, but so was emotional communication. “Your parents were not telling you that they are not coming. Every conversation was like a little code, telling us about the situation in Cuba,” she said.
Cruz, did not see her parents again until she was a university graduate and a married woman. “Seeing my mom was moving, but at the same time I had grown independent and was not used to the Cuban way of life,” said Cruz.
Eventually Cruz found her way to DLIFLC. “I met a Soldier and married him,” she said. When her husband was stationed at Fort Ord, Cruz was able to find work at DLIFLC. “In 1991, I started working at DLI. I have been here for the past 19 years,” Cruz said.
The Undergraduate Persian Farsi school teaches language by employing highly educated native speakers as instructors.'
On this site you can convert (transliterate) persian written in english letters, called Pinglish or Finglish, to persian language script. You can directly email the text or save it as a document from this site:
Persian language and literature:
Literature and Poetry (Iran government):